Not many people would argue the complete pain and heartache that go with cancer, and most wouldn’t wish the disease on their worst enemy. From watching a family member suffer to cheering on a friend, the battle against cancer can be gruelling. Sadly, some people find themselves with the disease despite no symptoms.
With so much research conducted and money spent, it’s hard to believe cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the U.S., according to the American Cancer Society. Furthermore, about 1,685,210 new cancer cases will be diagnosed by the end of 2016.
Because cancer is so common, it’s a good idea to consider cancer screenings. These tests can help intercept any preliminary signs of cancer before symptoms have appeared. The National Cancer Institute says cancer may be easier to treat when detected early. While the screening may come with risks, it’s important to discuss potential benefits with your doctor.
Tests typically include a physical exam, assessing the patient’s health history, blood or urine tests, imaging procedures, and genetic tests, which can search for gene mutations that may be linked to cancer.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. Let’s take a closer look at each.
1. Breast cancer
Mammograms, which take an X-ray of the breast, are the most common way to detect breast cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends women between the ages of 40 and 44 get mammograms if they want to,
While those between 45 and 54 need to get one every year. Women over 55 can cut it back to once every other year and continue as long as they are in good health and expected to live ten years or more.
2. Cervical cancer
A woman’s Pap test can either find cervical cancer or detect any abnormal cells in the cervix, potentially leading to cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends women begin cervical cancer testing at age 21 and get their pap every three years until they are 29.
Women aged 30 to 65 should have a Pap test plus an HPV test every five years. For those over 65, continue unless there’s a family history.
3. Lung cancer
When you think of lung cancer, your mind probably goes right to smoking. While other factors may also play a role, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual lung cancer screenings for people aged 55 to 80 with a history of heavy smoking, even those who’ve quit within the past 15 years. Lung cancer screening is done with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), a type of CT scan.
4. Colorectal (colon) cancer
Screening for colon cancer is essential as it can find precancerous polyps. Colon cancer almost always develops from these abnormal growths in the colon or rectum. As the American Cancer Society recommended, men and women should follow one of these testing plans starting at 50.
Individuals can choose from several tests, such as a colonoscopy or fecal test. The recommended frequency for each test is slightly different, so you’ll want to consult a physician to determine what will be best for you.